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Old 09-10-2004, 06:51 AM   #1
n xntrx volvo
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Default Penta Faq

Forward
Volvo is a well diversified Company. Aside from the manufacture of Heavy trucks, they are also well known in the Marine world for their boat motors. Some Engines are re-badged Versions of Chevy and Ford Engines, but some are based on Volvos own engines. Due to boat motors being ran for several hours at high rpm's, many items in these motors have been upgraded internally. Most have also been mixed with the best of the volvo parts bin, and/or had penta specific parts added in the quest to add aditional hp without turbocharging (marine folks have a harder time finding good gas sometimes). I have compiled a list and info of models that are of interest to those on this site.
Happy hunting,
-Aaron

General

volvo factory info/ sales lit

Aq125a
-2.1L
-80MM stroke
-8v 1000160 head
-"A" cam,
Aq125b+
-2.3L
-80MM stroke
-8v 1000531 head
-"A" cam,
-CR 9.8:1
-120hp
Aq131 / aka 230, 275
-2.3L
-80MM stroke
-8v 1000531 head
-Single Carb
-"A" cam
-120hp
- cast crankshaft
-529.1lbs
Aq145
-2.3
-80mm stroke
-8v 1000531 head
-Dual Carb
-"V" cam
-All Square Tooth Belt
-CR 9.7:1,
-138hp
Aq151 = aka 250
-2.49l, or 151ci
-86MM stroke
-Forged crankshaft
-8v 1000531 head
-Dual Carb
-"V" cam
-CR 9.7:1. comp press 142-170psi
-Cast V pistons
-All Square Tooth T-Belt
-146hp
-551.2 lbs
-max speed 5500 rpm
Aq171/ aka 251a(dohc)
-2.49L, 151.9ci
-86MM stroke
-16V Head
-Dual Carb
-"PZ" cam
-CR 9.7:1
-Cast V pistons
- Forged Crankshaft
-All Round Tooth T-Belt
-167hp
-637.15lbs

Induction
All are carb, generally Solex. This is a good way to id the high performance motors. Single are budget (for a marine motor), dual are high performance.

Blocks
Aq125, Aq140, Aq145 = b2x block
Aq131, Aq151, Aq171, Aq251 (dohc) = b230 block
Super Marine block which is very similar to the R block. It can be bored up to 99mm successfully.
No pentas came w/ squirters, they have the bolts/are machined for them in late ones though. They can be easily added to these motors.

Stoker/ crank info
The aq151 and aq171 had a 86mm stoke crank. This compares to normal Volvo Auto 80mm, giving them a 2.5 liter displacement. These crankshaft are direct replacements for b230's of the same era.
The letters after the Penta number are important. Stay away from the A. It had small mains and was based on the 9mm rods. Early Penta motors, just like early B230s, had less desirable bearings and bearing location, and rods. Blocks produced before 1988 used small mains and 9mm rods, 1988+ = 63mm mains and big rods.
Some penta cranks are forged (cast units are noted below). The forged crankshaft will have a thick parting line on the counter weights.
Breakdown by model
- Small
AQ131A, AQ131B (cast)
AQ151A, AQ151B
AQ171A, AQ171B
-Large
AQ131C, AQ131D (cast)
AQ151C, AQ151D
AQ171C, AQ171D
sp 230 (all) (cast)
sp 250 (all)
sp 251 DOHC (all)

Rod / Piston interchange
the AQ151 and AQ171 use the same 152MM long conn rods as the B230 engine, and use a 3MM shorter compression height (wrist pin to piston crown) to compensate for the longer stroke.




Compression
Height
36,7
Combustion Chamber Depth
3,2
Distance Between Bosses
25
Total Length
61,7

Total Length
Pin
23
x
65
R 1,75 Cr
NM 1,75
SSF 3,5
96,01 037 03 00
96 V 18



Cams
the V-cam has 11.37 max lift inlet and outlet and has an overlap of apr. 12 degree. lobe separation (108.5)
For more 8v camshaft info click here
Aq171 pz cams, the lobes on the PZ cams are 0.7mm taller from base to peak then the stock cams and about 0.5mm wider across. For a PZ review click here. PZ's are a drop in for 16v cars also.

Cylinder Heads
info
Cylinder heads for petrol engines consists of:
Cylinder head, intake and exhaust valves, valve springs, washers and lock. For B21, B23, B230 and B250 engines camshaft is also included.


Pos no. Part no. Engines/Drives Spare part no.
90.1 3803012 AQ115A, AQ130, BB115A, MB20A 831656
90.1 38030181) AQ120B, AQ125A 463630
90.1 38030252) AQ140A, BB140A 463630
90.1 38032263) AQ145A, BB145A 857532
90.1 38031663) AQ145B 1346408
90.1 38031674) 230/SP, AQ125B, AQ131 1346408
90.1 38031685) 250/SP, AQ151 1346408
90.1 38032016) AQ171 DOHC 856528
90.1 3803201 251DOHC 856097

1)A camshaft.
2)D camshaft.
3)K camshaft.
4)A camshaft.
5)V camshaft.
6)Piston kit 876236, 4 pcs. are required.


Alternator
B23 based blocks use these mounts Penta's mount low and on the drivers side. 50 amp. These mounts can be used on car red blocks, using stock holes. Most i've seen, are GM style alts, w/12 and 6 clocking. The B230 based ones have a small alternator mount built into the motor mount bracket.

Condition advisory

Watch out for used volvo boat engines. Salt water likes to eat and corrode everything in it's path. try to get a boat engine/ parts that only saw fresh water use.

While these engines use a fresh water cooling system (a seperate cooling system from the sea cooling system) the salt water/ sea water still exits through the exhaust manifold. this causes corrosion on the #4 ex port, which is why these engines have round, sleeved exhaust ports there.

Identification
The Pentas use a small ID plate on the starter section of the block



the first entry (shown as 250b on the example) is the engine designation
the second entry (next to the last) is the product number
next line, (first ten digits) Serial number
the last 5, basic engine serial number

there also is the product designation, on the block. Its located right under the head, drivers (in a car) side.

Date code on the block is the same as auto units. just to the rear and lower than the oil filter. its a XXXXXX. the first two are the year of manufacture, ie 93 = 1993 etc. This plate will be obscured by the oil cooler on the dual carb models.

That oil cooler (click here for pic) will be a tip if loking for a 2.5l short block. It was only on dual carb models. The oil filter bolt will be extra long for this if its been removed. All 2.5l blocks are still stamped "b230" on the passenger (in a car) side.

The easy visual differences between the b23 and b230 based engines:
#1 The harmonic damper on the front. It will be a solid unit on b23/b21 engines. On b230 based engines it will be a 2 pc unit, connected by a rubber insulator inside.
#2 The valve cover: on b23/b21 based units it will be flat across the back. On b230 based units, it will have a half circle for the dizzy on autos.
*Note*, some late b23 based ones do have the late style valve cover, use #1 whenever possible.

Fyi, the late engines are manufactured with two different product designations. During the 1989 Volvo Penta Begain designating engines based on their cylinder diplacement according to the ISO norm 8665. The designation is listed above in the engine descriptions. ie, a aq171 is a 251 from 1989 on. Since these are the models you'll most likely be interested in, use these in your search criteria.
Parts specs and #'s
*Warning* Volvo Penta Parts are expensive. These engines are heavily prized in both the automotive and marine world. You'll also find that anything in the marine world is extremely over-priced.

parts catalog

aq171 parts
belt =
-#855506-2
-146 teeth
-timming marks on belt
tensioner
-#855507-0
-non-spring loaded, vw style
cam (in) =
-#855777-9
cam (ex) =
-#85778-7
shimed lifters = 1317798-5
aq171a crank =
-855482-6
-main bearing dia, 55mm
aq171c crank
-3514121-7
-main bearing dia
piston kit std
-876033-2
-height pin to top, 36.7mm
-overall height, 61.7mm
-all light alloy
piston kit .030
-876034-0
piston kit .060
-876035-7
block dizzy plug
-1336764-4
timming pointer for aux shaft (aq171 specific)
-834485-5
tensioner bolt
-959245-2
tensioner spacers/washers
-955895-8 & 855795-1
drivers side alt mount
-831763-8
valve (in)
-34.5mm
valve (ex)
-31.5mm
spark plug
-.276" gap
ignition
-rex
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Last edited by n xntrx volvo; 02-06-2006 at 08:17 PM..
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Old 09-10-2004, 12:17 PM   #2
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Hard to tell from that above, but is super marine=aq251??
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Old 09-10-2004, 01:15 PM   #3
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Great writeup!

Yes, be vary cautious about salt water marine engines, the heads get very corroded and sometimes become basically junk. I got an AQ125 engine with a 531 head that looked fine from the outside, but the exhaust manifold was STUCK to the head and broke peices off the head when we finally hammered it off. The exhaust ports of the head were chewed away, making it junk. And this is what the block looked like when we took the head off:
Click for picture
Honest, it looked fine on the outside when I got it! Hahahaha. Also, the marine bellhousing seems to be stuck on there as well, cause I can't for the life of me pry if off.

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Old 09-10-2004, 04:16 PM   #4
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Quote:
Originally Posted by davidmacq
Hard to tell from that above, but is super marine=aq251??
not that i'm aware of, but i'm not aware of much.

john, your aq125 has a 531? the info i found was 160, along w/ one that i've seen. Whats the letter designation? maybe there was a transition in there, cuz the lit lists the same power, for 125 and 131.
i'm lost,
Aaron
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Old 09-10-2004, 05:21 PM   #5
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I've got two Aq125 engines, one's actually in my brothers car right now. One is an AQ125A the other is a 125B I think. They both had A-cams. One had a 160 head, the other had a 531 head. I forget which was which. John
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Old 09-13-2004, 07:38 PM   #6
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Hi John,
I can guarantee that the siezed bellhousing will be the spline's on the flywheel plate and the gearbox(propeller housing).
As boat's don't have clutches the there is a solid plate with a clutch like centre ie splined hole, into this hole is the main shaft for the gearbox/prop housing this was absolutley siezed solid on the AQ171 I disassembled.
As I was only interested in the rotating assembly and the head I removed the was able to drive a chisel between the bellhousing and block(bolt's removed obviously) and had to work it from side to side for about half an hour increasing the chisel/crowbar each time.
It took 2 of us to do it, applying equal pressure to each side of the bell housing.
It wasn't fun!!! but you'll get there!
Laters
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Last edited by dirtbike; 09-13-2004 at 08:09 PM.. Reason: I didn't realise that aspirator had a "h" in his name!
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Old 09-13-2004, 07:48 PM   #7
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Thanks for the tip, I wasn't really sure what it was like inside the bellhousing. That makes a lot of sense. I really hold no value in the block cause it's total crap. Although one day I might take off the oil pan and check to see how the crank and rods are doing. On the side of this AQ125 block it says B230, so I'm guessing it's got either 9mm or 13mm rods inside. Whereas the block on my brothers car which is also an AQ125 (just a different letter designation) definately had M-rods and a forged crank, so it's B23 based. It didn't say B230 on the side.

John
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Old 10-01-2004, 06:19 AM   #8
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anybody know if 93 on pentas also got the oil squirters?
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Old 10-01-2004, 06:48 AM   #9
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It's nice to have all of that info in one place. Thanks Aaron.

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Old 10-01-2004, 07:26 AM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by n xntrx volvo
Aq171/ aka 251a(dohc) = 2.5L (86MM stroke) 16V, "PZ" cam CR 8.7:1 167hp
looking up i thought that was wrong.

says 9.7:1 for the AQ171
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Old 10-01-2004, 02:04 PM   #11
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first off...aaron, thanks so much for compiling this list!



Quote:
Originally Posted by n xntrx volvo

volvo factory info/ sales lit
parts catalog

Aq151 = aka 250 2.5L (86MM stroke) 8v with 1000531 head and "V" cam CR 9.8:1. 146hp

Crank interchange
aq151 and 171 are 86mm (+6mm) stroke, verses the stock 2.3l 80mm (+6mm), direct fit for b230 blocks.
All penta cranks are forged.

Rod interchange
the AQ151 and AQ171 use the same 152MM long conn rods as the B230 engine, and use a 3MM shorter compression height (wrist pin to piston crown) to compensate for the longer stroke.
so given this info, will the 151 crank/rods/slugs and head all swap right into any b230 block? like...if i get a later AQ, with the updated bearings and stuff, and throw it into a later B230 block, it'll work well and still run 9.8:1 compression? thats about the upper limit of compression i feel comfortable running on a boosted motor, and if the above is true, that means i have less to do before my AQ+T project is complete!
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Old 10-01-2004, 07:15 PM   #12
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yup
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Old 10-06-2004, 01:41 AM   #13
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Has anyone ever offset ground a penta crank off a 151/171 to get even more stroke? Maybe 2.7 liters(not +), not sure if the lower of the block can be modded for clearence. Just something I was wondering about.
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Old 11-18-2004, 12:48 PM   #14
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can someone post part numbers in this thread.... for pistons and roda and the like. They didnt have aq171 pistons in tha parts catalogue.
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Old 11-30-2004, 01:09 AM   #15
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Infector 944
can someone post part numbers in this thread.... for pistons and roda and the like. They didnt have aq171 pistons in tha parts catalogue.
aq171 parts
***updated into orig post***

Last edited by n xntrx volvo; 12-01-2004 at 11:38 PM..
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Old 12-01-2004, 11:39 PM   #16
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cleaned the thread starter up for ease of use
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Old 12-02-2004, 12:23 AM   #17
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Quote:
Originally Posted by n xntrx volvo
cleaned the thread starter up for ease of use

you rock buddy great job.



if an admin wants to del my posts to clean it up, go right ahead.
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Old 01-04-2005, 07:17 PM   #18
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Question AQ171C or AQ251A

Has anyone come across the ignition control module (coil and amplifier) for either of the above engines in their marine environment?

Do you have it ?

Do you need it ?

If you don't, could you throw it in my direction please.

Happy to pay for the part and shipping.
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Old 01-19-2005, 11:39 PM   #19
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updated, almost article ready
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Old 01-20-2005, 12:54 AM   #20
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"Rod / Piston interchange
the AQ151 and AQ171 use the same 152MM long conn rods as the B230 engine, and use a 3MM shorter compression height (wrist pin to piston crown) to compensate for the longer stroke. "


Hmm, I'm wondering it compensates for a longer stroke? but the longer stroke increases output from 2.3 to 2.5. Does this mean there is a way to rework the combination of parts to achieve more than 2.5L? Compression height sounds like it may just raise compression. Will be very interesting when some of these 2.5L projects finish and we see how things turn out.

On a side note. Saw a block without crank, cam n pistons, etc selling for $700 starting price on ebay. Wonder where those parts went? haha Also a whole AQ171 engine with asking price of $2200 and saw something that showed a 2.5L crank new would be around $1100. Wow, gotta be some old parts engines around.
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Old 01-20-2005, 12:57 AM   #21
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Rod / Piston interchange
the AQ151 and AQ171 use the same 152MM long conn rods as the B230 engine, and use a 3MM shorter compression height (wrist pin to piston crown) to compensate for the longer stroke.
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Old 01-20-2005, 01:09 AM   #22
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Is that reply a mistake? My question is sorta, well the increased stroke increases the output, but it is compensated for. Is it possible to not compensate for it and increase the output even more? Sorry we can just delete this if it's stupid questions, haha. Maybe you are still composing your answer, since I quoted what you said. Guess it goes to show I don't understand it.
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Old 01-20-2005, 01:17 AM   #23
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if you didnt shorten the piston, they would pop out of top of the cylinder bore.
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Old 01-20-2005, 01:26 AM   #24
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Right, so there isn't a way to use a thicker gasket, or a spacer in a different spot? What about a shorter piston? Guess that would be the same thing as before. We can just delete all this, haha.

Well I guess a thicker gasket wouldn't make any difference, but maybe you could add a weld in a machined plate to the bottom of the block so the cylinder sat up higher. Well I guess this isn't done and isn't feasible. Guess I have a firmer understanding now anyway.

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Old 01-20-2005, 09:18 AM   #25
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I am not an engine builder and it took me a while to figure out some of the internal dimensions. As I understand, the 86 mm crank adds 6 mm stroke, but this can be compensated for by 3 mm shorter rods and stock pistons, pistons with the pin located 3 mm higher, or pistons that are 3mm shorter (i.e, with 3 mm taken off the top). These measurements have to be only 3 mm less, not the 6 mm of the longer stroke, because the internals are reciprocating -- they go up and down so the three mm you take off will change the dimensions at the top and at the bottom and add up to 6 mm.

You are asking about stroking the crank further. This is possible. Dave Barton's motor is apparently over 2.6L, and is done by increasing the stroke to about 88 mm (I am guessing - I have not done the math, which is complicated; I don't have a chart sort of like a mileage map with bore and stroke and number of cylinders). There have been posts here about 88 and 89 mm cranks -- TB members have had stock 80 mm B21/23 cranks altered. I have not read of anyone changing the stroke on a cast B230 crank and I don't know whether the fact that it is case makes a difference or not. Increasing the stroke is typically done in two ways -- either the crank is enlarged by welding on more metal to the journals (offset welding) and then that new metal is machined into a journal or the stock journals are downsized and different rods are fitted to match the smaller journal size. This sort fo work can be expensive. You will no longer be working with stock dimensions, so building the motor can be more challenging. To compensate for the extra stroke, you need either or both custom (or different) rods and pistons. These mods are usually also expensive. There is a limit to how much you can stroke the crank. At some point, the edges of the big end of the rod that are attached to the crank journals will hit the edge of the block. The block can be clearanced a little. Perhaps someone knows the biggest displacement that has been developed from a stock B21/23/230. I'll guess 2.8L.

I plan to consider these issues when I do my Penta AQ171 turbo. I have to decide whether it is better to spend extra money on increasing displacement from 2.5 to 2.6 or 2.7L or whether I should spend the money on mildly reworking the head. I'll guess that I'd be happier with the head work. If money is no object, do it all. If you plan to buy custom rods and pistons anyway, then offset welding and grinding the crank do not add as much expense. I have Penta AQ171 pistons and I have late B230 rods and have to decide whether to use these stock parts or spend the big bucks for aftermarket parts. I'll probably wait to see what others do since I don't need to start this project right away.

Philip Bradley
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